To the question: “Will motorcycle production be revived?”, Vasily Khmelnitsky answered:
“I admire customized motorcycles as a product of engineering enthusiasm. However, this is a hobby, not a business. I do not believe that the mass production of the domestic motorcycle will be successful. It will not compete with any modern global manufacturer. "
Vasily Khmelnitsky is sure that the KMZ could function earlier due to the fact that the products were sold in the territory of 15 republics of the USSR, as well as motorcycles were exported to such large markets as China, Cuba etc. Today it is not. In addition, according to Khmelnitsky, the scientific part died and motorcycles lost competitiveness.
“In theory, as a businessman, I understand that it is necessary to make a joint venture with Honda and create a small assembly workshop for Honda for the Ukrainian market and possibly for export. However, this is a separate business process. "- emphasized Vasily Khmelnitsky.
" The motozavod is subject to ruin. Unfortunately, either an innovation park or housing will be created here. The world does not stand still and what was sometimes impossible to restore yesterday. ”- Khmelnitsky summed up.
It is worth recalling that the State Property Fund sold 90.811% of the shares of PJSC“ Kiev Motorcycle Plant ”(KMZ) in the summer of 2012. The sale of shares was carried out at the competition, and the number of requirements for the buyer included the following conditions: preservation of the main types of plant operations, investing over UAH 2.7 million in the development of the plant.
Additional conditions of the competition determined that the buyer of the package must have experience in economic activities for the manufacture of motorcycles or trade in motorcycles, spare parts and accessories for them, maintenance and repair of motorcycles.
The State Property Fund sold KMZ to the company Capital Index Group for 59.8 million g n. Already then it became known that there was no talk about any revival of production at KMZ. The main objective of the transaction is to gain control over the territory or land of the plant. Thus, it happened.
KMZ was not just a factory, but the flagship of the whole branch of Ukrainian motor-building. Previously, he produced up to 100 thousand motorcycles annually, which were sent to all continents. And today in different countries there are fan clubs of the KMZ Dnieper machinery.
Kiev Motor Plant opened on September 21, 1945. The last motorcycles were produced here in 2008. The plant’s history includes about 3 million motorcycles of different models.
Such information appeared in a joint statement of the company. Indonesia has become a test site for a reason. This state ranks third in the world in terms of motorcycle sales and suffers a lot from the exhaust gases they produce. For this reason, the leadership of Indonesia is trying by all means to promote electric motorcycles and scooters, as they told Panasonic. Full control over the availability of batteries, their movement, performance and other characteristics will be implemented by a system developed by Honda and Panasonic.
It is worth noting that the project is subsidized by the Japanese organization New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). The main objective of the organization’s work is to “explore the prospects for the use of portable batteries as distributed energy”. For this purpose, several dozens of stations will be built on the territory of the provinces of West Java and Bali, each of which will simultaneously charge several Mobile Power Pack batteries.
Every year Honda sells over 20 million vehicles, including electric cars and electric motorcycles. Partner of the company in this project was the Japanese corporation Panasonic, which is famous for developments in the field of electronic technologies and solutions for consumer electronics. By 2022, the corporation intends to increase battery sales by 2.5 times – to 1.4 trillion yen (12.6 billion dollars).
“According to the instructions of the governor of the Ulyanovsk region Sergey Morozov, the relevant documents for the management of Harley Davidson have already been prepared and will be sent as soon as possible. The text of the document includes a proposal to visit the Ulyanovsk region to explore the possibilities of the region in terms of locating production capacities here, "Goncharuk said.
In addition, he noted that this idea was first discussed at a meeting by Morozov with the head of the Ulyanovsk region entrepreneurship development corporation Ruslan Gainetdinov. During the meeting, the governor said that he was ready to create comfortable conditions for the activities of Harley-Davidson or other foreign companies.
It is worth recalling that on June 25, the leadership of Harley-Davidson said that he was preparing to transfer part of the production abroad. These measures will have to be resorted due to import duties on American goods, which were imposed by the EU authorities in response to Washington’s protectionist policies. The transfer procedure will take from 9 to 18 months.
Note that on June 22, European Commission members imposed 25 percent duties on imports of certain categories of goods from the US, for example, steel, aluminum, corn, bourbon, jeans and motorcycles.  Ulyanovsk will become a haven for Harley-Davidson "title =" Ulyanovsk will become a haven for Harley-Davidson ">
People who appreciate motorcycles can not be indifferent to their history. In this article we will talk about what was the very first motorcycle and when it appeared. The history of motorcycles began not so long ago, in the 19th century, with the creation of the first motorcycle on a steam engine. However, it is difficult to call it a real motorcycle, since this motorcycle is a two-wheeled vehicle whose heart is ICE.
The first motorcycle in the world
Many are interested in the question – which first motorcycle was invented and where? The answer is unequivocal – the first motorcycle with ICE was invented by Gottlieb Daimler. The patent for his invention, he designed in 1885 and it was called "The cart for riding with a kerosene engine." It is noteworthy that the designer of the motorcycle was inspired by the rider.
This unit was equipped with a wooden frame and belt transmission. The motor consisted of only one cylinder, capable of developing a capacity of 0.5 liters. from. The volume of such an engine reached 264 cubic meters. see On the wheels was a metal rim, and the spokes developer created from wood. The weight of the first motorcycle was 50 kg, and could go at a speed of no more than 12 km / h.
The first motorcycle looked more like a modern two-wheeled bicycle with safety wheels. Without the safety wheels, the trip would not have happened, because the technical characteristics did not allow to keep the balance while driving.
It is interesting that the development of the first motorcycle did not give a serious impetus to the development of the industry. The second motorcycle was designed only in 1912-1914. Models differed not only in design features, but also in the source of the driving force, they were gas, electric and even steam.
Magazine published the first Paris-Rouen arrival in 1894, which could include any transport that has mechanical drive on wheels. Within the limits of arrival the record speed – 20 km / h has been reached. After that, the first motorcycle received public recognition. However, a clear division of the machines and motorcycles of all mechanized crews occurred only in the next century.
Further development of the industry
The next development was Hildebrand & Wolfmuller which was released in 1895. On this model was installed a two-cylinder engine, which had a volume of 1498 cubic meters. see Such a power unit developed power to 2.5 liters. from. And the maximum speed was increased almost four times, in comparison with the first motorcycle, to 45 km / h. However, their production lasted only a few years, because they were not in demand.
In 1901 the third in history motorcycle, created by the company NSU, was presented to the general public. Its speed reached 40 km / h, and the weight was 38 kg. On this motorcycle was installed brand motor Tsedel, which developed a capacity of 1.25 liters. from. The power unit was mounted under a bicycle frame. The drive was also belt, which connected with the rear wheel. Interestingly, the pedals were used as a drive.
After that, a mini-coup takes place in the history of motorcycles with the development of the first American motorcycle brand "Indian."
Very interesting is the fact of using a pipe with a larger diameter instead of a bicycle frame. On this pipe was the battery of the ignition system. In addition, instead of the usual belt transmission was used chain, despite the fact that the chain could tear at the start from the place.
The engine was placed directly under the seat. The volume of the engine was 260 cubic meters. see a similar engine was able to give a power level of 1.75 liters. from. It used an automatic intake valve. The power unit had one cylinder, however it worked in four strokes. The fuel tank was also installed in an unusual place, namely on the rear wing. A few years later, a 310 cubic meter of motor was put on the same motorcycle. see also the capacity of 2.25 liters.
The next couple of years experts call the calm before the storm in the history of motorcycles. The breakthrough was made by Joseph Merkel, who developed the Milwaukee Merkel motorcycle, which had a loop-like frame with a single-cylinder engine and a leather belt drive. It is noteworthy that he designed such a motorcycle in 1902, but using a diamond-shaped frame. However, such a design was inconvenient for mounting the motor, for this reason the official date of appearance of the motorcycle is 1903.
It was on this bike came to see two guys from Milwaukee who had already tried to make a motorcycle earlier. Their names are Harley and Davidson.
As early as the following year 1904, they introduced their motorcycle, which was named Harley-Davidson. The motor they installed a volume of 405 cu. cm. They used a flywheel with a diameter of 23.5 cm and a weight of 12.7 kg.
After this, several attempts were made to create motorcycles that did not last long on the motor. It is worth noting 1923, in which the world saw a motorcycle from the company BMV – R 32. It is interesting that the company BMV was previously engaged in the manufacture of engines for aircraft, but at the end of the First World War, the management decided to finish the manufacture of engines and to create motorcycles.
Their attempt was very successful. It is thanks to this model that European manufacturers are again at the forefront of making two-wheeled vehicles. On this motorcycle was installed power unit BMW M2B33, the volume of 486 cubic meters. see, and for cooling used the air system. The motor was able to develop a capacity of 8.5 liters. from. At the same speed reached 95 km / h. Also, the developers used a box that has three transmissions. The front brakes were drum-type, and the rear brakes were block brakes. The consumption of gasoline reached three liters per 100 km.
It is worth noting that MotoHome is the graduation project of Jeremy Carmen, a senior student at the School of Architecture at the University of Southern California. In the idea of Carmen, in order to collect a camper, you need to mount the superstructure with a bed instead of the rear part of the motorcycle.
For this "native" pendulum is replaced by a unique one, which is twice as long. At the core, the student used the Honda CB road bike, but supplemented it with a more sturdy front fork from the cross Honda CR500.
Jeremy Carmen is raising funds for the project through the GoFundMe's crowfinding service. To date, of the five thousand dollars that are needed for the construction of a camper, about 2700 dollars have been collected. The first prototype has already been created.
According to Carmen, the insulated residential module has a weight of only 16 kilograms, which will not have a strong influence on the handling of the motorcycle. A sub-frame, the base on which the "sleeping bag" is mounted, at the same time is the capacity for the products.
Upon completion of the construction of the two-wheel motorhome, the student intends to test it on a trip to South America. He intends to get on a motorcycle to the southernmost tip of the continent. The author of the project promised to constantly conduct live broadcasts from his journey.
Lubricants, the purpose of which is to ensure the performance of the motor and gearbox, differ in component composition, viscosity index and other important physical and technical characteristics.
Scooter engines, originally only two-stroke, in modern mototechnics have invariant principles of work. On the mobile city transport, four-stroke engines are increasingly installed, especially in the technology released in China.
The principle of lubrication of the bearings of the crankshaft and the cylinder-piston system, in motors with two and four cycles of operation, is very different.
The closed design of the grease of the contacting elements of the four-stroke engine assumes the pouring of lubricants, the physical and technical parameters of which guarantee a long period of operation without loss of their main properties. In scooters with two-stroke engines, high performance results, on the contrary, give oils that can burn in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine without generating excessive volumes of soot components. The oil for the scooter during combustion should not be accompanied by a large amount of emitted smoke.
The oil viscosity index should ensure the preservation of its qualities at a positive air temperature.
What oil to pour into a scooter with a four-stroke engine? The answer is quite simple – the one recommended by the powerplant manufacturer. However, the Chinese scooters common today are equipped with motors that are built far beyond the Celestial.
Motors dropped from production in Japan or the US 10-15 years ago, as well as engines of Korean production. It is rather difficult to find in the constantly updated nomenclature series of lubricants exotics of a decade ago. In this case, you need to follow a fairly simple rule. A good scooter oil should ensure the formation of a tight separation film under conditions that accompany the use of the engine. These conditions include:
- ambient temperature
- level of the constantly acting load on the unit
- the life of the internal combustion engine.
Scooters are used mainly in the warm season. While the viscosity that the lubricant must be filled with, must guarantee the retention of the parameters only at a positive or slightly negative ambient temperature. According to the SAE classification, these groups include oils of class 5W30, 10W40 and 10W50. It is these oils that recommend the use of most manufacturers and experienced users for four-cycle scooters.
Two-stroke scooter motors can be lubricated in two ways. The first method is the standard lubrication for most of these engines, preliminarily dissolved in gasoline with oil.
Today, the engines have a separate injection of oil and fuel into the space behind the carburetor. The next way is much more rational. In addition to reducing the consumption of lubricant, the motor operates under more favorable conditions for the combustion of the fuel mixture. In conditions of idle rotation, the proportion of the mixture of oil and fuel reaches 1: 200.
However, the general rule for any operating conditions of a two-stroke ICE should be oil, which is marked with the 2T index. The process of separate supply of oil and fuel requires an instant and qualitative mixing of the components. Therefore it makes sense to use lubricants that have the label "self mix", meaning independent and rapid mixing with the gasoline-air mixture.
According to API classification, the lubricant is selected from the TA or TV classes, because it is suitable for use in two-stroke scooters , mopeds and garden equipment.
Today, scooters practically do not find a gearbox in its traditional sense – with a manual mechanical switching system. The speed control, which the engine transmits to the wheels, is carried out by variators of different design. The variator system assumes the addition of the transmission of scooters with reducers.
There is no need to use additional additives, because in the composition of high-quality gear oils there is a full complex of additives gears needed to provide effective lubrication, full
How much oil is in the scooter? There is no unequivocal answer to this question, each scooter needs a different amount of oil, however, applying the golden rule, one can know the volume of the necessary oil.After draining all the oil from the crankcase, its volume The amount of oil to be poured should be equal to the volume drained plus 3-5% In the case of a new scooter, you can not add 3-5%, but fill as much as it was drained.
The authors of the project claim that motorcycles are their own project. However, the skeptics noticed a rather serious similarity between the novelty and the Chinese motorcycle Bashan BS250.
Similar sizes and sizes differ from the "Chinese" only because of minor design changes – after all, the layout of the electric motorcycle is not the same as in the classical version.
Indirectly the fact of copying is confirmed by the fact that the company that produced original motorcycles IZH "died" back in 2008.
It should be noted that the IZH power unit is a brushless DC electric motor from the Chinese company Golden M otor, which has a "maximum 30-minute power" of 15 kW, and the batteries are of three types: lithium-ferrophosphate, lithium-ion or lithium-polymer. One main battery is located above the motor, and one or two additional batteries are in the trunks.
The developers said that such motorcycles will appear on the streets this year: from 50 to 60 such motorcycles will be used on the streets during the World Cup .
Today, the motorbike offers many options for oil and air filters for various motor vehicles. In this article we will try to understand what kinds of filters exist and what they are needed for.
Everyone knows that in the engine of a motorcycle, in the course of its operation, not only gasoline burns, but a mixture of gasoline and air The correct proportion is prepared by the carburettor. Without access to oxygen, gasoline can not catch fire. In the event that the fuel, before entering the motor, passes through a fine fuel filter, the air filter cleans the air. Without an air filter, the air cleaning will not be complete and the dust entering the engine will cause premature wear.
The air filter for the zero resistance motorcycle is tuned to its technique. These types of filters increase engine power, since the motor "breathes" more freely, and it does not need to overcome air resistance at the inlet. However, these filters do a poor job of filtering air, therefore, the motor wears out more rapidly. Thus, it is advisable to use "zero-point" filters only on sports equipment, when you need to win the competition, and the engine resource goes to the background.
Another function of the motor is to reduce the engine's volume level. Masters who often disassemble the body of an air filter of a motorcycle know that its device is not as simple as it seems at first glance. In the case there are cameras and partitions. In fact, the filter housing is specifically designed in such a way as to take part in damping the sound of the engine, together with the silencer.
What kind of air filter can be used on a motorcycle? There are several types of air filters:
- foam filters that are impregnated with oil. Similar filters for motorcycles are used for vehicles that are in dirty conditions. The oil is used for filtration. Foam is used only for support and as a base for oil. For proper operation of the filter, the foam must be impregnated with oil. To clean the filter, it must be rinsed several times with solvent and squeezed out before drying
- fabric filters. These air filters are made of special fabric, namely – from gauze, which is located inside the metal case. Such filters are well proven in the process of operation, they guarantee a good airflow. The filter is also filled with oil. To clean it you need to use soap and water. Do not forget to dry it well before lubricating with oil. With proper care, the filter will last you a long time
- paper filters. Such filters for motorcycles are used mainly for street motorcycles. However, their work stops after getting wet. Any moisture falling on the filter, contributes to the loss of efficiency, which is restored after drying. Their cleaning is carried out by blowing air through the ventilation holes or folded valves.
After changing the oil and buying a new oil filter for the motorcycle before the opening of the motor season, you will achieve a high level of performance of your iron horse. However, many car owners forget to replace the filter element, bypassing only the purchase of a new oil.
The oil filter for a motorcycle is a product for cleaning various types of oils, as well as hydraulic fluids that are used in motor vehicles. Very often the motorcycle is subjected to high and long loads, and therefore the motor must be kept clean. In time, replace filter products – then use competently any type of vehicle.
The first oil filter was created in 1923 by Ernest Sweetland and George Ginhalde. They created an incomplete threading device. Only a small fraction of the oil passed through the filter, and most of the liquid flowed directly into the engine.
It was only 20 years later that the first version of the full-flow filtration element was created, in which the entire volume of liquid was filtered before filtering into the engine. To date, some systems operate with the use of both types of filters, exploiting the advantages of each option.
The oil filter consists of the following parts:
- openings through which the oil enters
- oil filter housing
- bypass valve
- check valve
All filters are divided into the following categories:
- oil filters for coarse cleaning. Such filters are suitable for small cubes. Filtering helps to retain the largest fractions, by passing a liquid through a mesh of plastic or metal. Installation of such filters is often carried out with a constant oil change or in such engines in which the purification system consists of several filters
- open oil filters. They have a similar design with air filtration products and are distinguished by a special cleaning fiber that deters unwanted particles from entering the motor
- filters in a rigid casing. Such products are created in the form of a closed glass made of metal, which is screwed into the nominal area of the motor. These filters differ in the dimensions of the filtration components and threads. To positive qualities is to add a convenient design that allows a short time to make a replacement.
When choosing a filter, pay attention to its body. It must be firm and not lose shape when pressed, because the filter is affected by the force of the oil pressure, as well as the differences in atmospheric pressure associated with changing weather.
Regardless of the shape of the filter, pay attention to the O-ring, which must be made of elastic rubber to achieve a more tight fit.
The high-quality oil filter has a spongy structure. On the modern motor there is a large number of different versions of oil and air filters. Particular attention should be paid to quality, reliability, and firm-manufacturer. Products of proven brands guarantee the proper performance of products.
Regarding the model range of this year, it can be called more technological than the previous one. ABS system, audio system, longer power reserve (almost 100 km), higher speed (at least 105 km / h). Also, changes were made for the dimensions of the motorcycle. They are adapted to European growth. The design uses lighter alloys, added customizable damping systems and many other functions.
It should be noted that the MyBro electric motorcycles are quite small in weight. Their weight ranges from 78 to 138 kg. The batteries are charged from a normal 220V network for 6 hours. The motorcycle can be operated at an air temperature of -20C to + 60C degrees. They differ in a rather large interservice interval – about 120 thousand km. The warranty term for electric bikes reaches 50,000 km.
More detailed information on the new MyBro products will be available at the New Cars Fest 2018 New Cars Festival in Kiev, which will be held from 26 to 27 May in the VDNKh
At the same time, the implementation of scooters in the segment of small cubatures, which have motors of up to 50 cc, fell by 40.2%. Only 37 071 new malokubaturny scooter was registered during the first three months of the year in European countries. While the sale of motorcycles with a motor capacity of more than 50 cc, not only did not fall, but on the contrary, increased by 4.7% – to 203,853 units.
Italy became the largest market in the implementation of new motorcycles in January-March this year. The second place was occupied by France, the third by Germany, the fourth by Spain, and the fifth by the United Kingdom.
Regarding mopeds, France occupies the first place in the European market. The second line was occupied by the Netherlands, the third Italy, the fourth Belgium, and the fifth Spain. Unfortunately, in all these countries there is a decline in sales, which is expressed in double digits. The most severe drop was recorded on the territory of France – 41.5%.
Experts explain the decrease in the number of sold mopeds by the explosive growth of the popularity of electric motorcycles and electric scooters – the sales of environmentally friendly vehicles increased by almost 52% or 8,281 copies in the first quarter of Europe
In addition, analysts emphasize that many people who used mopeds used to do today are increasingly choosing different techniques for electric traction. After all, this technique does not need registration – various monocoques, electric bikes, electric scooters, etc. – and for this reason this fact is not reflected in statistics at all.